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1. Reformatted for gjots from the original Psion file medic from

http://3lib.ukonline.co.uk/pocketinfo/index.html

by 

Bob Hepple, bhepple@freeshell.org, Nov 2002

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2. 1 Disclaimer

In a medical emergency any trained first aiders or medical staff present must always be used for treatment.The information given here must only be used in extreme situations where such trained help is not available

No liability is accepted for any condition caused by this information

Words in capital letters refer to other entries in the database, except "DO NOT" which advises on any actions which must not be attempted

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3. 2 First Aid Priorities


1 Observe situation/accident fully
2 Look for immediate dangers
3 DO NOT put yourself at risk
4 Protect victim
5 Be aware of your limitations
6 Assess all casualties,treating life threatening injuries first
7 Ensure all necessary emergency services have been called

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4. 3 Initial Assessment & Resuscitation


1 Check for consciousness,ie a RESPONSE,being careful not to move head or neck
2 Open AIRWAY by tilting head back
3 Check for BREATHING by listening,looking & feeling
4 Check PULSE,circulation
5 Check for bleeding & control (once breathing & pulse return)

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5. 4 Road Accident-General


1 Ensure your own safety
2 Park safely (if driving),clear of accident,hazzard indicator on
DO NOT run across motorway/freeway
3 If dark,carry/wear reflective material or a light
4 Send bystanders to warn traffic
5 Set reflective warning triangles 200m in either direction
6 Turn off ignition of all vehicles,disconnecting batteries if possible.Turn off fuel supplies to diesel vehicles & motorcycles
7 Steady vehicles using handbrakes & put into gear.Put blocks under wheels if not possible
DO NOT right overturned vehicles,simply brace to prevent further movement
8 Look for hazards-signs on commercial vehicles,fuel spills,power cables etc
9 Assess all casualties,dealing with life-threatening conditions first.Move victims only if in immediate danger
10 Search area for victims thrown clear or dazed and wandering around
11 For unconscious victims;
-DO NOT move
-Assume neck injury (SPINAL INJURY)

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6. Abdominal Wounds


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Lie victim down-elevate knees if wound across abdomen
2 Loosen clothes
3 Put large dressing over wound & secure with bandage/sticky tape
4 If blood seeps through cover with another dressing
If victim coughs/vomits,press firmly on dressing to stop abdomen internals pushing out
If intestine protruding,cover with cling film or plastic bag to stop drying out

Notes: If victim becomes unconscious,open AIRWAY,check BREATHING/PULSE & prepare to RESUSCITATE.Place in RECOVERY POSITION,supporting abdomen

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7. Abdominal Wounds-Blunt


Cause: 

Symptoms: Like SHOCK:
*Rapid pulse
*Low bloodpressure
*Cold,clammy skin
*Abdomen may become rigid/tender
*Victim may be confused/unable to remember or describe injury

Treatment: 1 Monitor victim's PULSE & BREATHING.Rapid,weak pulse or very rapid/slow breathing may indicate internal bleeding.If these signs develop,call emergency services immediately
2 Lie victim down with feet elevated above heart
3 Loosen clothes & cover with blanket to keep warm
Do not give anything to eat or drink,even if thirsty
Watch for SHOCK

Notes: 

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8. Airway


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Place two fingers under victim's chin
2 Place free hand on forehead
3 Gently tilt head well back-if head/neck/spinal injury suspected,handle very carefully & tilt head just enough to open airway

Notes: If arway blocked;
Use finger to remove blockage using a hooking action to avoid forcing blockage further into throat

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9. Alcohol Poisoning


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Alcohol smell
*Unconsciousness
*Flushed/moist face
*Deep/noisy breathing
*Full pulse
Later
*Dry,bloated face
*Shallow breathing
*Dilated pupils,poor light reaction
*Weak,rapid pulse

Treatment: 1 Shake shoulders/speak loudly to guauge RESPONSE level
2 If unconscious,open AIRWAY,check BREATHING & PULSE & prepare to RESUSCITATE
3 Protect from cold ground & cover to keep warm

Notes: 

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10. Allergic Reaction (Anaphylactic Shock)


Cause: Certain drugs,insect stings,foods (ie peanuts)

Symptoms: *Anxiety
*Difficulty breathing
*Red,blotchy skin
*Face/neck swelling,puffy eyes
*Rapid pulse

Treatment: 1 Call emergency services
2 Make victim comfortable-sitting position may relieve breathing trouble
3 Monitor & record BREATHING,PULSE & response every 5 mins until help arrives
If vicim becomes unconscious place in RECOVERY POSITION & prepare to RESUSCITATE

Notes: Check for EpiPen or adrenaline syringe & assist victim to use if necessary

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11. Amoebic Dysentery


Cause: Contaminated water/raw food

Symptoms: *Fatigue
*Listlessness
*High temp
*Solid/foul smelling faeces with blood/red mucus

Treatment: Flagyl,plenty of fluids/rest

Notes: 

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12. Angina


Cause: Sign of heart disease-narrow artery unable to carry enough blood to heart

Symptoms: *Gripping pain in chest centre,often spreading to left/both arms,through to back & up to jaw
*Breathlessness
*Pale skin,bluish lips
*Anxiety
*Sudden,extreme weakness

Treatment: Reduce work done by heart
1 Reassure victim
2 Sit them in most comfortable position,loosen clothing
3 Ask if they have medication-pills placed under tongue/spray under tongue
4 Keep victim rested
5 Check pain passes in 1-2 mins

Notes: If pain persists may be heart attack-get victim to hospital immediately
Monitor & record BREATHING & PULSE & be prepared to RESUSCITATE

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13. Animal Bite-Minor


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: Treat as per CUTS & ABRASIONS

Notes: Contact doctor if signs of INFECTION develop

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14. Animal Bite-Puncture Wound/Large Gash


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Apply pressure to wound & raise injured area
2 Cover wound with sterile dressing and bandage
3 Get medical attention

Notes: If bitten by wild or domestic animal may get an infection & have injury to soft tissue.Most serious consequence rabies,transmitted in saliva of diseased animals,including dogs,cats,cattle,& bats.Infected animals may behave strangely;i.e.a nocturnal animal active during day,or may drool,appear partially paralyzed,irritable or quiet.Fatal if not treated promptly.If you/victim may have been bitten by rabid animal,call emergency services immediately.Get away from animal.DO NOT try to catch/hold it.Wash wound with soap & water,control bleeding & apply antibiotic ointment & dressing.If bleeding heavily,do not try to wash;try to control bleeding.Remember what animal looked like & where last seen

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15. Asthma


Cause: Muscles in walls of tubes in lungs tighten,narrow & impede air flow
Usually caused by an allergy

Symptoms: *Breathing/speaking difficulty
*Wheezing
*Grey/blue skin
*Dry,tickly cough

Treatment: 1 Keep calm,reassure victim & encourage slow,deep breaths
2 Help victim find & use inhaler (usually blue) to synchronize with deep intake of breath to take spray down into lungs
If attack continues over 10 mins:
-Call emergency services
Sit victim down,leaning slightly forward,resting elbows on back of another chair
Open window,unless cold weather

Notes: DO NOT lie victim down

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16. Bacillary Dysentery


Cause: Flies/contaminated water/infected faeces

Symptoms: *Blood-streaked faeces
*Sudden high temp

Treatment: 1 Antibiotics
2 Rest
3 Fluid intake

Notes: 

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17. Back/Spinal Injury


Cause: -Falling from height,ladders,horses,motorcycles
-Deceleration from car accident
-Head/face injury
-Sports injury

Symptoms: *Pain in neck/back
*Step/twist in curve of spine
*Spine tender to touch
*If spinal cord damaged;
-Loss of limb movement
-Abnormal sensation
-Breathing difficulty

Treatment: Conscious Victim;
1 Reassure victim & tell them not to move
2 Keep head,neck & spine aligned using your hands over their ears to keep head still
3 Place rolled towels/padding around neck & shoulders,keeping head held
4 Call emergency services
If victim becomes unconscious,place in RECOVERY POSITION,keeping head/neck aligned with spine. Be prepared to RESUSCITATE
Unconscious Victim;
If BREATHING & PULSE found, place in RECOVERY POSITION,keeping head/neck aligned with spine.Call emergency services
If not BREATHING & no PULSE
1 Call emergency services
2 Open/clear AIRWAY.Tilt head very gently keeping head in neutral position (head/neck/spine aligned,nose in line with navel)
3 Check BREATHING & PULSE-if still absent,log roll (see below) victim onto back if necessary for RESUSCITATE
4 Combine ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION with CHEST COMPRESSIONS until medical help arrives
5 If BREATHING/PULSE recover,place victim in RECOVERY POSITION

Notes: DO NOT move unless in danger

Log Roll
-Keep head,toes & in straight line throughout
-Maintain support at neck
-Helpers straighten victim's arms & legs
-Log roll victim onto back,keeping neck supported

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18. Bilharzia


Cause: Microscopic worm in infected water or broken skin

Symptoms: Irritation of urinary tract

Treatment: Niridazole

Notes: Disease of bowel/bladder

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19. Black Eye


Cause: 

Symptoms: Type of bruise

Treatment: Apply ice/cold packs for 15 mins every 1-2 hours during first 48 hours to help vessels constrict/reduce swelling.Sooner ice applied,less bleeding will result
If painful after 48 hours,apply heat with warm towels,hot water bottle,heating pad

Notes: Seek medical advice immediately if
-signs of INFECTION
Or
Blow to eye causes: 
-Blood in coloured/white part of eye
-Impaired/double vision
-Inability to move eye normally
-Severe pain in eyeball rather than eye socket

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20. Bleeding-Internal


Cause: Direct blow to body,fracture,sprain,bleeding ulcer.Internal bleeding results when blood vessels rupture & blood leaks into body cavities.If victim receives injury to chest/abdomen,suspect internal bleeding

Symptoms: *Pain & tenderness in affected area
*Skin cold,clammy
*Pale face/lips
*Weakness/fainting/dizziness
*Nausea
*Thirst
*Rapid/weak/irregular pulse
*Shortness of breath
*Dilated pupils
*Swelling/bruising at site of injury
*Red urine (bladder/kidney injury)
*Blood vomited (stomach injury)
*Blood coughed up (lung injury)

Treatment: More symptoms experienced,more extensive the bleeding
1 Lay victim down,raise & support legs.Loosen clothing & protect from cold
2 Call medical help.Monitor & record BREATHING,PULSE & RESPONSE every 10 mins
3 Note amount,type & source of any external blood loss & collect sample for hospital
4 Victim may rinse mouth with water,but DO NOT give victim of internal bleeding anything to drink

Notes: 

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21. Bleeding-Severe External


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Apply direct pressure.Place clean folded cloth/dressing over injury & apply firm pressure.If blood soaks through,do not remove-cover cloth with another & continue to apply pressure for 10 mins.If bleeding from ear,place clean bandage over ear,lay victim on side & allow blood to drain out through bandage
2 Raise & support wounded part of body above heart while applying direct pressure
3 Lay victim down
4 Bandage wound.Apply dressing and bandage,covering with further dressing if blood seeps through.Check circulation beyond wound & loosen bandage if required
5 Call emergency services
6 Treat for SHOCK & monitor/record PULSE

Notes: DO NOT remove any embedded object-apply pressure on both sides,pad & bandage
If possible wear gloves to prevent infection
DO NOT apply a tourniquet

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22. Bones-Cheekbone/Nose Fracture


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Apply cold compress to reduce swelling
2 Treat NOSEBLEED if necessary
3 Call emergency/take victim to hospital
If straw coloured fluid leaks from nose suspect/treat as SKULL FRACTURE

Notes: 

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23. Bones-Closed Fractures/Dislocations


Cause: Most occur in shoulder,elbow,finger,thumb

Symptoms: *Swelling
*Deformed look
*Pain/tenderness
*Discolouration

Treatment: 1 Tell victim to keep steady/still
2 Support injured part until immobilised
3 For firm support-secure an injured limb to other part of the body;
arms-support against torso using sling & bandaging
legs-bandage injured leg to uninjured one
4 Call emergency services
5 Treat for SHOCK
6 Raise injured limb if possible
7 Check circulation around bandage every 10 mins & loosen if necessary

Notes: DO NOT move victim until injury secure/supported
DO NOT give anything to eat/drink
DO NOT replace dislocated bone into socket

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24. Bones-Compound/Open Fracture


Cause: Compound/Open fracture pierces through skin

Symptoms: Serious bleeding may occur

Treatment: 1 Cover wound with dressing.Apply pressure to control bleeding-not on exposed bone end
2 Place padding over/around dressing
3 Secure with bandage
4 Immobilise as a CLOSED FRACTURE
5 Call emergency services
6 Treat for SHOCK
7 Check circulation around bandage every 10 mins & loosen if necessary

Notes: DO NOT move victim until fracture is secured & supported

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25. Bones-General


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 

Notes: Body consists of 200+ bones of different shapes & sizes.Bones plus muscles,tendons & ligaments form skeleton,which protects the organs body uses to function
Bones are dense,very strong & do not break easily,except in elderly people with osteoperosis, the gradual weakening of bones
Bone injuries often quite painful & may bleed-bones have ample amount of blood & nerves
2 types of bone injuries are;fractures(open or closed) & dislocations which also involve muscles & joints
Body has 600+ muscles,which are soft tissue
Injuries to brain,spinal cord or nerves can affect muscle control & when muscle is injured nearby muscle may take over for injured one
Joint formed where ends of two or more bones come meet
Bones held together by ligaments,which tear if joint forced beyond normal range of movement
SPRAIN-tearing of ligaments at joint
STRAIN-stretching &/or tearing of muscles/tendons
Open FRACTURE when arm/leg twists and broken bone ends tear through skin,causing open wound.Closed fracture-skin not broken;much more common than open fracture
Open fracture brings chance of infection & severe bleeding
Fractures can be life-threatening if sever an artery,affect breathing,or occur in very large bones i.e.femur in thigh.Motor vehicle accident or fall from height may cause fracture
DISLOCATION typically more noticeable than fracture & occurs when bone moves from normal position at joint.Violent force tears ligaments holding bone in place at joint,& joint no longer functions.Often,displaced bone causes obviously abnormal bump,ridge or hollow
Sprains may swell but typically heal quickly.Pain may be minimal & victim may be active soon,in which case joint won't heal properly & remain weak.Likely to be reinjured more severely,possibly involving fracture/dislocation of bones at joint.Most easily injured joints are ankle,knee,wrist & fingers
Strains frequently caused by lifting heavy objects or working a muscle too hard.They usually involve muscles in neck,back,thigh or back of lower leg.Strains tend to reoccur,especially those located in neck or back.
X-ray best way to assess extent of damage to bone,muscle or joint.However,you may be able to judge how serious injury is by appearance.Area may be red,bruised,swollen,twisted or have bumps,ridges or hollows.Area may be painful to touch & move,or victim may be unable to move it.If you compare an injured body part with an uninjured one,may be able to locate abnormalities;works well with arm,leg,shoulder & knee.Sometimes victim may have heard snap/crack when injury occurred,or may feel bones grating.Also,victim's hands,fingers,feet or toes may tingle or feel numb

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26. Breathing


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Kneel beside victim,placing your face close to their mouth
2 Look at chest to see if rising
3 Listen for breathing sounds
4 Feel for breath on cheek
Continue for 10 seconds before deciding there is no breath

Notes: 

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27. Bruises


Cause: Ruptured blood vessels under skin,often from a bump or fall.Blood seeps into surrounding tissues,causing black & blue colour of bruise
People who take aspirin/blood thinners (anticoagulants) may bruise easily
May develop after blood drawn
Black eye a type of bruise.Apply treatment below & inspect eye

Symptoms: 

Treatment: Apply ice or cold packs for 15 mins every 1-2 hours during first 48 hours to help vessels constrict & reduce swelling.Sooner ice applied,less bleeding will result.If possible,elevate bruised area.Blood will leave area & there will be less swelling
Rest injured limb so not injured further
If still painful after 48 hours,apply heat with warm towels,hot water bottle or heating pad

Notes: If signs of INFECTION develop or if you suddenly begin to bruise easily or have unexplained recurrent or multiple bruises
Seek medical advice immediately

Bruises follow predictable pattern & possible to tell by looking how old it is.When first appears,will be reddish looking,reflecting colour of blood skin.By 1-2 days,reddish iron from blood undergoes change & bruise will appear blue/purple.Day 6,colour changes to green & day 8-9,bruise will appear yellowish-brown.In general,a bruise will be repaired in 2-3 weeks after which skin will return to normal

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28. Burns-Chemical


Cause: Chemicals used in manufacturing or items like bleach,battery acid,paint removers

Symptoms: *Stinging sensation on skin
*Staining & discolouration
*Skin reddens,blisters/peels

Treatment: 1 Wash affected area with water (if dry chemical,brush off gently first with soft brush)
2 Remove contaminated clothes whilst washing
3 Cover burn,if inflammed,with dressing
4 Get victim to hospital
If chemical is in eye;
1 Hold head under tap & allow water to run into eye,not into other eye
2 Keep eyelids separated during washing
3 Wash for 10 mins it possible,alternate every 10 secs if both eyes affected
4 Cover eye with sterile pad
5 Get victim to hospital

Notes: If water not available,fluid such as milk or beer can be used

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29. Burns-Clothing Fire


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Make victim lie down at once
2 Use dry powder extinguisher or other heavy object to smother flames & exclude oxygen
Once flames are out;
3 Remove hot clothes or cool with water
4 Cool victim for 10 minutes with water
5 Call emergency services
6 Check AIRWAY
7 Cover burns with clean dressings
8 Give victim sips of cool water if conscious

Notes: DO NOT use Nylon material to smother
DO NOT roll victim on ground

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30. Burns-Electrical


Cause: Can be power lines,lightning,defective electrical equipment & unprotected outlets

Symptoms: *Can result in serious muscle breakdown
*Electrolyte abnormalities
*Occasionally kidney failure
Site of damage can be internal & not visible on skin surface

Treatment: 1 Call emergency services in any case of electrical burn
2 Do not go near victim unless you are sure power turned off.Burn itself may not be the main problem
3 If victim unconscious,check BREATHING & PULSE.Check for other injuries,& do not move victim as may have spinal injuries
4 Cover burn with dry,sterile dressing.Do not cool burn
5 Prevent victim from getting chilled
May be 2 wounds where current entered/exited body & they may be deep

Notes: 

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31. Burns-General


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Stop the burning.Put out flames or remove victim from heat source
2 Use large amounts of cool water to cool burn.Never use ice except on small superficial burns,as causes body heat loss.If burn area cannot be immersed,i.e.face,soak clean cloth & apply to burn,adding water to keep cloth cool
3 Cover with sterile dressings or clean cloth to prevent infection & reduce pain.Bandage loosely.DO NOT put ointment on burn unless very minor.Do not use home remedies or break blisters.Minor burns with broken blisters not severe enough to require medical attention,wash burned area with soap & water,keep clean & apply antibiotic ointment
Some people allergic to topical ointments,so if any doubts,call doctor for advice.For victim of severe burns,lay down unless trouble BREATHING.Raise burned area above victim's heart,& protect from drafts

Notes: DO NOT put butter or greasy ointments on burns.This seals heat into wound & may cause infection
Always seek medical attention if;
*Victim a child or elderly
*Burn covers more than one body part
*Burn located on any sensitive area (hands,face,feet,etc)
*Burn third degree
*Burn caused by chemicals

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32. Burns-Minor


Cause: Damages outer layer of skin

Symptoms: *Redness
*Mild pain
*Swelling

Treatment: 1 Immediately submerge affected part in cold (running) water/fluid or cover with cold,wet cloths for 10 mins or until pain decreases
2 Remove any clothing/jewelry before swelling
3 Cover with clean,dry gauze dressing for protection

Notes: DO NOT break blisters
DO NOT apply adhesive dressing
DO NOT use lotions,oils or fats which seal in heat,continuing the burn

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33. Burns-Severe/Scalds


Cause: Go through to second layer of skin

Symptoms: *Skin red with blisters-may open & weep clear fluid,giving wet appearance
*Area may appear mottled
*Usually painful & swells
*Blisters
*Rough,red skin
*Extreme pain

Treatment: 1 Lay victim down keeping injured area from ground
2 Cover burn with cold liquid for 10 mins
3 Watch for BREATHING problems & prepare to RESUSCITATE
DO NOT overcool if burn area large due to risk of HYPOTHERMIA
DO NOT remove anything sticking to burn
4 Call emergency services
5 Remove clothing/jewelry (unless sticking to burn) before swelling
6 Cover burn with clean dressing (or any clean,non-fluffy,material-kitchen film,pillowcase,plastic bag) to protect from infection.Burns to face do not need covering,just cooling
7 Record details of accident
8 Treat for SHOCK & reassure victim
9 Monitor & record BREATHING & PULSE & prepare to RESUSCITATE

Notes: DO NOT break blisters
DO NOT touch burn
Do not apply lotions,oils,fats or sticky dressings

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34. Burns-Sunburn


Cause: Solar radiation

Symptoms: Painful & blister

Treatment: 1 Get out of sun
2 Cool burn under cold shower/sponge with cold water
3 Avoid pressure on burn
4 Apply witch hazel,natural yoghurt, calamine lotion or sunburn cream
5 Protect burn by staying out of sun
Seek medical attention if extensive blistering

Notes: If going out in sun,wear sunscreen with SPF (Sun Protection Factor) of 15 minimum & reapply frequently(SPFn-you can stay in sun n times longer than your normal burn time)
Cover existing sunburn if going outside

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35. Cardiac Arrest


Cause: Heart has stopped beating

Symptoms: *Victim collapses & becomes unconscious/motionless
*No breathing movement
*No pulse
*Skin greyish

Treatment: 1 Call emergency services immediately stating cardiac arrest
2 Perform MOUTH-TO-MOUTH inflations
3 Start chest compression (CPR)
4 Give 2 inflations to every 15 compressions until help arrives

Notes: 

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36. Chest Wounds


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Pain/difficulty breathing-maybe rapid,shallow & uneven
*Sense of alarm
May also be 
*Shock
*Coughed up,frothy blood
*Grey-blue nails,mouth & skin
*Sucking sound of air at chest

Treatment: 1 Use your/victim's palm to cover wound
2 Remove palm & cover with dressing
3 Cover dressing with plastic bag/foil/kitchen film & secure with sticky tape on 3 sides,leaving one open for air under pressure to escape
4 Support victim in most comfortable position,leaning towards injured side
5 Call emergency services
6 Treat for SHOCK
If unconscious,open AIRWAY,check BREATHING & PULSE & prepare to RESUSCITATE.Place in RECOVERY POSITION with injured side uppermost

Notes: 

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37. Childbirth-1-Start of Labour


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Low backache
*Regular contractions
*Discharge of bloodstained mucus
May last several hours

Treatment: 1 Call midwife/doctor/emergency services,giving full details,due date etc
2 Help mother into most comfortable position.Massaging lower back with heel of hand can relieve pain

Notes: DO NOT bathe if waters have broken-can cause infection
Mother will know what to expect but may panic

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38. Childbirth-2-Delivery


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Contractions stronger/more frequent
*Waters break any time

Treatment: 1 Cover area with plastic sheet/newspaper/towels to absorb mess
2 Ensure emergency services are on way
3 Remove lower clothing,covering with blanket if mother prefers
4 When eidest part of baby's head visible-mother to stop pushing & pant instead.
DO NOT allow the mother to drink-moisten lips if thirsty
5 Tear any membrane over baby's head
6 Allow baby to arrive naturally.If umbilical around baby's neck ease it over baby's head to avoid strangulation
DO NOT pull baby's head or shoulders
7 Lift baby from birth canal-may be slippery-handle carefully
8 Place on mother's stomach
DO NOT pull umbilical cord
9 Baby should cry-if not,carry out RESUSCITATION-DO NOT smack
10 Wrap baby in clean cloth/blanket & give to mother,with head low to let any mucus drain away from nose/mouth

Notes: 

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39. Childbirth-3-Delivery of Afterbirth/Placenta


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Afterbirth delivered up to 30 mins after baby
*When expelled and cord stopped pulsating,cord turns blue to white as bloods flows to baby

Treatment: 1 Encourage mother
DO NOT pull or cut umbilical cord
2 Keep afterbirth intact,ideally in a plastic bag,until midwife cuts cord
3 Provide water,clean towels/sanitary pad to clean mother who may want to clean herself
4 Massage womb just below navel-helps to stop bleeding by helping womb contract

Notes: 

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40. Choking-Aspyxiation


Cause: Loss of consciousness due to presence of too little oxygen/too much carbon dioxide in the blood.Victim may stop breathing for number of reasons (drowning,electric shock,heart failure,poisoning,suffocation)

Symptoms: Flow of oxygen throughout body stops within mins if respiratory system fails.Heart failure,brain damage & death will result if breathing not restarted

Treatment: Rescue Breathing
Person suffering from asphyxiation should be given rescue breathing
Before rescue breathing,be certain victim actually stopped breathing:
1 Kneel beside victim,place ear near nose & mouth & watch chest.Should feel & hear breaths & see chest rise & fall if victim breathing
If victim not breathing;
1 Provide open AIRWAY.Carefully place victim on back & open mouth.If material blocking airway,must be cleared out
2 Tilt victim's head back by placing heel of one hand on forehead & other hand under bony part of chin to lift it slightly
3 Straddle thighs,placing one palm slightly above navel but well below breastbone.Cover this hand with other & interlace fingers
4 Without bending elbows,press sharply on victim's abdomen 6-10 times
5 Turn victim's head to one side & sweep out any contents in their mouth with fingers
6 If victim's breathing not restored after removing object,reposition head in head-tilt/chin-lift position & continue breathing for them as long as necessary or until help arrives
7 If no signs of breathing,pinch victim's nostrils closed.Seal mouth over victim's & blow 2 full breaths.Rising chest indicates air reaching lungs.If stomach expanding instead,victim's neck & jaw positioned improperly.Gently push on victim's abdomen with palm of your hand until air is expelled,because extra air in stomach may cause vomiting
8 Look,listen & feel again for signs of breathing.If victim still not breathing on their own,continue blowing into their mouth one breath every 5 seconds until help arrives.
Infants:
If working with infant or small child,position your mouth so that you blow through child's nose & mouth at same time.Give 2 puffs,using mouth & cheeks for breathing air into infant's lungs (to keep from overinflating lungs)
Administer one breath every 3-4 seconds

Notes: 

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41. Choking-Conscious Adult


Cause: 

Symptoms: If person clutching throat with both hands,they are making universal sign for choking
If person can cough or talk,encourage them to continue coughing
Once victim can no longer talk or cough,you must clear obstructed airway

Treatment: To clear airway perform Heimlich maneuver,aka abdominal thrusts:
*Stand behind conscious choking adult,wrapping arms around their waist
*With one hand,make fist
*Place thumb side of fist against victim's abdomen just above navel
*Be sure hand is far below tip of breastbone
*Put other hand over the fist & give quick upward thrusts into victim's abdomen
*Continue giving thrusts until object blocking airway dislodged & victim breathes,or until becomes unconscious

Notes: 

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42. Choking-Conscious Child


Cause: 

Symptoms: If child can cough or talk,encourage them to continue coughing.If child cannot cough or talk,ask if they are choking

Treatment: Perform abdominal thrusts:
Stand behind victim,wrap arms around waist & make fist with one hand
Place thumb side of fist against child's abdomen,above navel yet far below tip of breastbone
Put other hand over the fist & give quick upward thrusts into victim's abdomen
Continue giving thrusts until airway cleared & child breathes or becomes unconscious

Notes: 

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43. Choking-Conscious Infant


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: During primary survey you may determine that infant is conscious & cannot breathe,cough or cry
You must give 5 back blows & 5 chest thrusts
*Place infant faceup on forearm
*Put other arm on top of infant
*Use thumb & fingers to hold infant's jaw,sandwiching infant between forearms
*Turn infant over,facedown on forearm.
*Place arm down on your thigh,being sure that infant's head lower than chest
*Using heel of your hand,give 5 back blows between infant's shoulder blades.Be sure to hold infant's jaw with thumb & fingers to stabilize head
* You must turn infant back over to give chest thrusts
* Place free hand & forearm across infant,sandwiching between forearms & supporting head
* Turn infant over onto back & place arm down on thigh,making sure infant's head lower than chest
* Imagine a line across infant's chest between nipples.Place ring finger on infant's breastbone just below imaginary line
* Place pads of next 2 fingers just under line
* Raise ring finger & if you can feel notch at tip of infant's breastbone,move fingers up a little
* Compress infant's breastbone 1/2-1 inch with pads of fingers & let breastbone return to normal position
* Give 5 compressions.Continue giving back blows & chest thrusts until infant can breathe or cough,or until unconscious

Notes: 

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44. Choking-General


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: If person is choking,do not interfere as long as they are coughing.If coughing does not dislodge object from trachea & victim breathing with extreme difficulty,or turn a bluish colour & appear choking but unable to cough or speak,quickly ask,"Are you choking?"Choking victim can nod their head "yes," but will be unable to talk.It is important to ask this question as a person suffering from a heart attack will have similar symptoms,but he will be able to talk

Notes: The Abdominal Thrust
If victim choking;
1 Stand behind with your arms around their waist
2 Place one fist,with knuckle of thumb against victim's midsection,slightly above navel but well below breastbone
3 Hold fist firmly with other hand & pull both hands sharply toward you with upward-and-inward jab
4 This procedure should be administered continually until object forced out or victim becomes unconscious
DUE TO THE FORCE WITH WHICH ABDOMINAL THRUST IS GIVEN,IT SHOULD BE USED ONLY IN AN ACTUAL EMERGENCY

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45. Choking-Pregnant Woman or Obese Person


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: Conscious Adult
If a choking conscious adult is noticeably pregnant or too obese to wrap arms around in order to perform abdominal thrusts,give chest thrusts instead:
* Stand behind victim,placing your arms under victim's armpits & around chest
* Make fist with one hand & put thumb side of fist against centre of victim's breastbone
* Make sure thumb is on breastbone,not ribs & not near tip of breastbone
* Put your other hand over fist & give quick inward thrusts
* Continue giving thrusts until object dislodged,or until victim becomes unconscious

Unconscious Adult
If victim was a conscious choking pregnant woman or obese person who became unconscious:
* lower victim gently onto their back on the floor
* Or,you may have determined during primary survey,even after retilting head & trying again,air would not go into pregnant or obese victim
* You must give chest thrusts
* Kneel beside victim,placing one hand on centre of victim's breastbone & then placing your other hand on top
* Give 5 quick thrusts,compressing chest 1 1/2-2 inches
* Do finger sweep,open airway with head tilt & chin lift & give 2 slow breaths
* If air still will not go in,continue giving chest thrusts,finger sweeps & 2 slow breaths until object expelled & air goes in
* If victim not breathing & has pulse,go to Rescue Breathing
* If victim not breathing & does not have pulse,go to CPR

Notes: 

Contents


46. Choking-Unconscious Adult


Cause: 

Symptoms: If during primary survey your breaths will not go in an unconscious adult & you re-tilted head & tried again but breaths still would not go in,assume victim's airway obstructed

Treatment: If victim was a conscious choking adult who became unconscious,you must lower them to the floor on their back.Perform head tilt & chin lift to try to open airway & attempt to remove obstruction by sweeping it out of victim's mouth with your finger.This is called a finger sweep
Always use a hooking action,being careful not to lodge object in further
Perform head tilt & chin lift & give 2 slow breaths.If breaths still do not go in,go to abdominal thrusts.
Straddle one or both of victim's thighs.Place heel of one hand on victim's abdomen,just above navel yet far below tip of breastbone.Place other hand on top of first,interlacing fingers & give 5 quick upward thrusts.Then do a finger sweep & give 2 slow breaths
If air still will not go in,continue giving 5 abdominal thrusts,a finger sweep & 2 slow breaths.Continue giving thrusts until object dislodged,air goes into victim,or medical personnel takes over
If victim not breathing but has pulse,perform Rescue Breathing
If victim not breathing & does not have pulse,go to CPR

Notes: 

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47. Choking-Unconscious Child


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: If child was a conscious choking victim who became unconscious,lower child down onto their back
Or,you may have determined during primary survey that air would not go in,even after you retilted & tried again
You must give child 5 abdominal thrusts,do finger sweep if you see object & open airway with head tilt & chin lift & give 2 slow breaths.
If breaths still will not go in,continue giving abdominal thrusts,finger sweep & 2 slow breaths until object expelled,child starts to breathe or cough or medical professional takes over
If child not breathing but has pulse,perform Rescue Breathing
If child not breathing & does not have pulse,go to CPR

Notes: 

Contents


48. Choking-Unconscious Infant


Cause: 

Symptoms: If infant was a conscious choking victim who became unconscious,place them down on their back.Or,you may have determined during primary survey,even after retilting head & trying again,that air would not go in

Treatment: Perform 5 back blows & 5 chest thrusts
Do foreign body check:open infant's mouth,holding tongue & lower jaw & lifting them upward,& look for object;if you do see object,do finger sweep to remove it with little finger
Then give 2 slow breaths.If air still will not go in,continue doing back blows,chest thrusts,foreign body check & 2 slow breaths until infant starts to breathe,cough or air goes in
If infant not breathing but has pulse,perform Rescue Breathing
If infant not breathing & does not have pulse,go to CPR

Notes: 

Contents


49. Cholera


Cause: Insanitary conditions

Symptoms: *Vomiting
*PULSE loss
*Cold clammy skin
*Muscle cramps

Treatment: Prevent with regular innoculation

Notes: 

Contents


50. Clothing Removal


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: NEVER remove clothes unless absolutely necessary as can cause more harm
Crash Helmets
DO NOT remove a crash helmet unless absolutely necessary

Notes: 

Contents


51. Concussion


Cause: Often a blow to head,jostling the brain inside the skull.More serious head injury may result in contusions or bruises to brain.Period of unconsciousness may indicate brain damage & accompanies many head injuries

Symptoms: Concussion
*Dizziness
*Nausea
*Mild Headache
* Memory loss of accident
Signs of brain injury/skull fracture
*Clear or reddish fluid draining from ears,nose,mouth
*Difficulty speaking
*Headache
*Unequal size pupils
*Pale skin
*Paralysis of arm/leg (opposite side of injury)or face(same side of injury)

Treatment: 1 Place victim in RECOVERY POSITION.Monitor & record PULSE,BREATHING & RESPONSE every 10 mins
2 If unconscious over 3 mins call emergency services
3 If victim recovers,watch for any deterioration
4 Seek medical advice if sickness,tiredness or headache occurs after apparent recovery

Notes: DO NOT give victim anything to drink

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52. Convulsions-Adult


Cause: Epilepsy or sudden illness.Unlikely to cause death unless breathing stops

Symptoms: *Muscles stiff & hard(tonic stage),followed by jerking movements(clonic stage)
*Breathing may cease

Treatment: 1 Help victim fall safely,reassure them
2 Clear all objects away from victim & place something soft under head
3 Check for epilepsy card-may list their typical pattern of seizure
4 Loosen tight clothing
5 If convulsions continue for more than 10 mins or victim injured during attack call emergency services
6 Place victim in RECOVERY POSITION once convulsions stopped
7 Stay with victim until fully recovered

Notes: DO NOT place fingers or anything in mouth
DO NOT restrain victim unless to prevent further injury
Often followed by period of unconsciousness,another convulsion or confusion in victim

Contents


53. Convulsions-Child


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Fever
*Violent muscle twitchng
*Breath holding
*Drooling

Treatment: 1 Cool child by removing clothing
2 Clear away objects & surround with soft padding
3 Sponge with tepid water,starting at head
4 Once convulsions stopped,place in RECOVERY POSITION with head well tilted back
5 Call emergency services

Notes: 

Contents


54. CPR


Cause: Combines Chest Compressions with Artificial Ventilation

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Kneel beside victim.Locate lowermost rib with index & middle fingers of lower hand.Slide along rib to where it meets breastbone.Place middle finger at this point & index finger above it on the breastbone.
2 Place heel of free hand on breatbone & slide it down until it reaches index finger of other hand.This is the point to apply pressure
3 Place heel of first hand on top and interlock fingers
4 Lean over victim & with arms straight press breastbone vertically down about 4-5 cm.Release pressure but keep hands in place
5 (For adult) Repeat 15 times,at an ideal rate of 100 chest compressions per min
6 If alone,follow with 2 ARTIFICIAL VENTILATIONS
7 Continue alternating 15 chest compressions with 2 artificial ventilations until help arrives

Notes: For children aged 1-7 years,alternate 5 chest compressions,using one hand,with 1 artificial ventilation
For babies under 1 year,alternate 5 chest compressions,using two fingers,with 1 artificial ventilation (place lips over baby's mouth & nose for artificial ventilation)

Contents


55. Cramp


Cause: Unknown.Affects any muscle

Symptoms: *Pain
*Bunching of muscles bending toes/fingers

Treatment: 1 Gently straighten joint
2 Massage affected area

Notes: Passes in several minutes

Contents


56. Cuts & Abrasions


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: Cuts:
Do not remove any object embedded in wound
1 Wash area with soap & warm water, washing away dirt
2 Apply pressure to wound until bleeding stops
3 Bandage wound
4 If deep,get to doctor quickly
Abrasions (Scratches):
1 Wash with soap & warm water
2 If bleeds/oozes,bandage to protect from infection

Notes: 

Contents


57. Dengue


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Rash
*Headache
*Fever
*Muscle/joint pain

Treatment: No vaccine/cure

Notes: Recovery takes several weeks

Contents


58. Diabetes/Hypoglyaemia


Cause: Insulin overdose
Low carbohydrate intake
Excessive exertion

Symptoms: *Faintness/dizziness/shakiness/tremor
*Confusion
*Intoxication
*Sweating,pale skin
*Rapid unconsciousness

Treatment: If conscious,give victim sugar-sweet drinks,chocolate-should improve within 10 mins-suggest medical attention

Notes: 

Contents


59. Diabetes/Hypoglyaemia Coma


Cause: Too little/no insulin

Symptoms: *Unconsciousness
*Nail varnish/pear drop smell on victim's breath

Treatment: 1 Look for diabetic card/disc/sugar lumps or needle marks to ensure victim is diabetic
2 Place in RECOVERY POSITION
Get victim to hospital

Notes: 

Contents


60. Diarrhoea


Cause: Common,usually brief

Symptoms: *Loose/liquid faeces,passed more frequent than normal

Treatment: 1 Drink plenty of fluid
2 Avoid solid foods
3 Do not use drugs unless advised by doctor,as these may keep the cause within the body
Call doctor if diarrhoea persists,or if associated with fever/abdominal pain,vomitting or bloody stools

Notes: 

Contents


61. Disease Prevention


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 

Notes: *Get immunised
*Purify water
*Prepare/eat food with clean hands
*Wash/peel fruit
*Sterilise eating tools
*Protect body from insect bites
*Wash/smoke louse infested clothes
*Protect food from flies/vermin
*Bury faeces
*Wash body regularly

Contents


62. Drowning


Cause: Victim may survive even after 30 mins in cold water

Symptoms: 

Treatment: If still in water;
1 Apply mouth-to-mouth ventilation,moving to dry land in between breaths
2 Get victim from water quickly,keeping head lower than chest once clear of water to lower risk of vomiting.Protect from cold weather/wind
3 Check BREATHING/PULSE
4 If ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION still needed,turn victim's head to side,clear mouth(may bring up water)
If breathing,place in RECOVERY POSITION
If cold,treat for HYPOTHERMIA

Notes: Get to hospital 
DO NOT go into the water unless vital to do so

Contents


63. Drug Overdose


Cause: 

Symptoms: Numerous

Treatment: 1 Call emergency services immediately
2 If victim conscious
-Get as much information as possible-name of drug,time taken
If victim unconscious
-Check & clear AIRWAY,check PULSE & BREATHING & prepare to RESUSCITATE
3 If signs of burning in mouth & victim conscious,make them drink water/milk slowly
4 Place in RECOVERY POSITION whether conscious or not
5 Collect drug container & vomit sample if possible

Notes: DO NOT keep victim awake with coffee or exercise-quickens absorption of drug
DO NOT look for antidotes
DO NOT make victim vomit

Contents


64. Earache


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Fever
*Deafness
*Discharge from ear

Treatment: 1 Painkillers
2 Check temp & consult doctor if fever develops

Notes: 

Contents


65. Electric Shock


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Remove victim from source of electricity before you touch them.Turn off master switch to disconnect power,or use nonmetal,dry object to pull wire or electrical source away from victim's body
2 If not BREATHING,begin ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION immediately;victim whose heart has stopped beating needs CPR
3 If victim unconscious but breathing & has PULSE,place in RECOVERY POSITION & monitor breathing/pulse until medical help arrives

Notes: 

Contents


66. Emergency Services Information


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 

Notes: Information emergency services need
*telephone number calling from
*exact location,local road/junction names,landmarks
*nature,severity & urgency of incident
*nature of illness/injures
*number,age & sex of victim(s)

Contents


67. Eye Injury


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Intense eye pain
*Bloodshot eye
*Partial/total vision loss
*Blood/clear fluid loss

Treatment: 1 Lay victim on back with head resting on your knees to keep head still
2 Tell them to keep eye still
3 Give victim pad to cover injured eye,keep other eye closed
4 Call emergency services

Notes: DO NOT touch or rub eye or contact lens

Contents


68. Fainting


Cause: 

Symptoms: Before losing consciousness,victim may complain of;
*Lightheadedness
*Weakness
*Nausea
*Skin pale & clammy

Treatment: If person begins to feel faint,they should;
-lean forward
-lower head toward knees(as head lowered below heart,blood flows to brain)
What to do if someone becomes unconscious:
1 Keep victim lying down with head lowered & legs elevated
2 Loosen tight clothes
3 Apply cool,damp cloths to face & neck

Notes: In most cases,victim will regain consciousness shortly after being placed in this position
After victim regains consciousness,do not let them get up until questioned(Who are you?,Where are you?,Do you know what day it is?) to be sure they have completely recovered

Contents


69. Fever


Cause: *Bacterial/viral infection
*Overactive thyroid gland
*Body fluid loss
*Excessive head heat
*Heart attack
*Lymphoma tumour

Symptoms: Body temp over 37'C/98.6'F

Treatment: 1 Remove clothes
2 Bath in or sponge down repeatedly with cool/tepid water
3 Take aspirin unless doctor advises otherwise

Notes: All fevers should be reported to doctor
Long term,very high fever can cause brain damage
DO NOT give aspirin to child under 12 years

Contents


70. Fever


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Raised temp under tongue
*Skin pallor
*Victim feels chilled
Later
*Sweating
*Headache
*Aches & pains
*Higher temp

Treatment: 1 Make victim as comfortable as possible,ie in bed with light covers
2 Give cool drinks
3 Adult takes 2 paracetamol,children as recommended (not aspirin)

Notes: 

Contents


71. Fishhook Removal


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: If point of hook lies near skin surface;
1 Grasp hook shaft with pliers
2 Turn hook & push point/barb out through skin
3 Cut off barb close to skin
4 Pull out hook
5 Clean wound with soap & water
6 See doctor asap

Notes: Seek medical help immediately if;
*Hook embedded in eyeball
*Hook deeply embedded
*Tetanus shots not up to date.Have it within 2 days if you need tetanus booster
*Signs of INFECTION develop

Contents


72. Food Posioning-Acute(Staphylococcal) & Salmonella


Cause: Bacteria in reheated or half cooked food

Symptoms: *Nausea,vomitting & diarrhoea
*Abdominal pain
*Headache
*SHOCK
*Fever(Salmonella)
*Acute takes 2-6 hours to develop,Salmonella takes 1-2 days

Treatment: 1 Give victim plenty of water to drink
2 Once stomach settled,give jelly, blancmange,dry biscuits or clear soup
If abdominal pain,blood in stools or severe symptoms lasting over 3 days-call doctor

Notes: DO NOT give victim milky drinks-tea/coffee or acidic drinks-fruit juices/squashes
Food Poisoning Prevention
-Ensure frozen meat/poultry fully defrosted before cooking
-Cook meat/poultry/eggs/fish fully to kill bacteria
-DO NOT keep food warm for long periods
-Wash hands before preparing
-Wear gloves/plaster any cuts

Contents


73. Freeing Trapped Limbs


Cause: Fingers,arms,legs may get caught in bottles,jars,pipes

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Stay calm
2 Don't force limb-this may make it swell & more difficult to remove
3 Relax limb.Relaxation alone may enable you to free it
4 If possible,elevate limb
5 Applying ice around exposed area may reduce any swelling & allow limb to be released
6 If ice doesn't work,dribble soapy water or cooking oil on limb & turn it or object so you "unscrew" rather than pulling out directly

Notes: Call emergency services if unable to free trapped limb

Contents


74. Frostbite


Cause: Freezing of body tissues.Usually occurs in exposed areas of body,affecting superficial or deep tissues.Quite serious.Water in body's cells freezes/swells,damaging & destroying them.Can results in loss of fingers,hands,arms,toes,feet,legs

Symptoms: *Lack of feeling in area
*Waxy skin appearance
*Cold to touch & discoloured (flushed,white,yellow,blue)

Treatment: 1 Handle very gently & DO NOT rub affected area
2 Warm area by soaking in water no warmer than 100-105'F,using thermometer to check water temperature.DO NOT let affected body part touch bottom or sides of container holding water
3 Leave frostbitten area in water until red & feels warm
4 Bandage area with dry,sterile dressing, placing cotton or gauze between frostbitten fingers/toes
5 Avoid breaking blisters & seek medical attention quickly

Notes: 

Contents


75. Head Injuries


Cause: Most bumps on the head are minor & heal as easily as anywhere else

Symptoms: Head injuries that cause cuts often bleed heavily because blood vessels of scalp close to surface.This bleeding alarming,but not always a severe injury
Head injuries that do not cause visible external bleeding may have caused life-threatening bleeding & swelling inside skull.Anyone experiencing a head injury should be watched carefully for 24 hours for signs of severe head injury

Treatment: 1 Replace displaced skin
2 If bleeding,apply dressing & firm pressure directly over wound.If blood soaks through,apply additional cloths over first.Secure dressing with bandage
3 Lay victim down with head/shoulders slightly raised
4 If victim becomes unconscious for 3+ mins place in RECOVERY POSITION call emergency services & prepare to RESUSCITATE

Notes: Prevention
* Always wear seat belt when in motor vehicles.Use child car seats
* Always wear helmet while biking,motorcycling & skating
* Don't dive into shallow or unfamiliar water

Contents


76. Heart Attack


Cause: Blockage of branch of coronary artery
Part of heart muscle dies-if large part,victim unlikely to survive.If small part,recovery possible

Symptoms: *Sudden crushing chest pain,spreading to left arm
*Conviction victim is dying
*Faintness & falling
*Heavy sweating
*Pale skin,blueness at lips
*Weak,fast pulse,may be irregular
*Breathlessness
*Sudden loss of consciousness

Treatment: 1 If conscious,help victim into half sitting position
2 Support head,neck & shoulders
3 If victim has tablets/aerosol,assist administration
4 Reassure victim & help to relax
5 Call emergency services/doctor immediately stating victim had heart attack
6 Keep victim rested
7 Check PULSE & BREATHING
8 Give one aspirin tablet,if available
In victim becomes unconscious place in RECOVERY POSITION & monitor PULSE/BREATHING
If breathing stops,give mouth-to-mouth/ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION
If pulse stops start chest compression (CPR)

Notes: DO NOT allow victim to move
DO NOT give anything to eat/drink

Contents


77. Heat Cramps


Cause: Overexposure to heat & combination of fluid & salt loss from heavy sweating,usually after strenuous exercise or work outdoors in warm temperatures.Often in legs & abdomen.Indicate more severe problem to come if proper care not given promptly

Symptoms: Painful muscle spasms

Treatment: 1 Have victim rest comfortably in cool place & provide with cool water or sports drink
2 Stretch muscle gently & massage area
3 Once cramps stop,may resume physical activity,drinking plenty of fluids during & after activity

Notes: 

Contents


78. Heat Exhaustion


Cause: Strenuous exercise or work in hot environment.Most common heat-related illness.Victim loses fluid through sweating & bloodflow to skin increases,reducing blood flow to vital organs.Victim goes into mild shock

Symptoms: *Low body temperature
*Pale/moist/cool skin
*Headache
*Nausea
*Dizziness/weakness
*Exhaustion

Treatment: 

Notes: If heat exhaustion allowed to progress,condition will worsen until heat stroke

Contents


79. Heat Stroke


Cause: Strenuous exercise or work in hot environment.Heat stroke,least common heat-related illness,occurs when heat exhaustion symptoms are ignored.Body systems become overwhelmed by heat.Sweating stops & body can no longer cool itself.Body temperature rises rapidly & brain/vital organs begin fail.Convulsions,coma & death may result

Symptoms: *High body temperature
*Hot,red,dry skin
*Progressive loss of consciousness
*Rapid,weak pulse
*Rapid,shallow breathing

Treatment: 1 Call emergency services immediately if victim's condition so bad you suspect heat stroke
2 Move victim to cool area & give cool water to drink
3 Remove any tight or heavy clothes & cool body however you can;apply cool wet cloths to skin,fan victim,or place ice packs on wrists & ankles,in each armpit & on neck in order to cool large blood vessels
4 DO NOT apply rubbing alcohol-prevents heat loss
5 DO NOT let victim drink too much too quickly-4 ounces every 15 mins ok.If victim vomits,stop giving fluids & position on their side,keep airway clear & monitor breathing/PULSE
6 Keep victim lying down, continue cooling body until medical help arrives

Notes: If heat-related illness recognized in early stages,can usually be reversed

Contents


80. Hernia


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Abdominal bulge  or swelling
*Lower groin pain
*Vomiting

Treatment: 1 Support victim in most comfortable position,often sitting with cushion support
2 Call doctor or emergency services if pain is severe

Notes: DO NOT push/press swelling

Contents


81. HIV Risk


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: Precautions
*Avoid contact with spilled blood,including in the eye
*Any blood on first aider's skin should be wiped away and washed at earliest possibility
*Infection from saliva negligible unless victim bleeding in/around mouth.Use polythene bag with slit cut if ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION needed

Notes: Very small risk of infection

Contents


82. Hookworms


Cause: Infected drinking water or penetrate bare skin,usually feet

Symptoms: *Anaemia
*Lethargy

Treatment: Alcapar/Mintazol

Notes: Worms live in intestine,larvae may cause pnuemonia

Contents


83. Hyperventilation


Cause: Breathing very fast & deep (hyperventilate) causes carbon dioxide (CO2) level in blood drops too low

Symptoms: *Numbness/tingling in hands,feet,around mouth
*Pounding,racing pulse & anxiety
*Feeling you can't get enough air
*Lightheadedness
*Chest pain
*In severe cases,unconsciousness

Treatment: If you have hyperventilated before:
Ask people to mention if you start to breathe too fast
When you notice fast breathing or other signs,slow breathing to one breath every 5 seconds,or slow enough that symptoms subside

Notes: Sit down & concentrate on slowing breathing
Practice a relaxation technique
Breathe in & out of a paper bag held over nose & mouth.This will help bring amount of CO2 in blood back to normal.Continue intermittently for 5-15 mins.Call emergency services if:
* hyperventilation occurs in person who isn't appear tense or anxious
* anxiety & hyperventilation are frequent & interfere with daily activities

Contents


84. Hypothermia


Cause: Body cools as warming mechanisms fail.If proper care not promptly administered, victim may die.Body temperature drops below 95'F,PULSE becomes erratic,stops & victim dies

Symptoms: *Shivering
*Slow,irregular pulse
*Numbness
*Glassy stare
*Apathy along with decreasing levels of consciousness
People can develop hypothermia even when temperature only moderately cold.Elderly in poorly heated homes,homeless,ill or those with certain medical conditions more susceptible to hypothermia.Anyone submerged in cold water or remaining in wet clothes for prolonged period may develop hypothermia

Treatment: If victim may have hypothermia,call emergency services immediately.Care for life-threatening problems.Remove wet clothes,dry victim & warm body gradually by wrapping in blankets.Move to warm place.Use hot water bottles or heating pads to help rewarm body,but put barrier,like blanket,towel or clothes,between heat source & victim to keep from burning them.DO NOT warm victim too quickly & DO NOT immerse victim in warm water.Handle victim gently.In cases of severe hypothermia,victim may be unconscious.Monitor BREATHING & PULSE until medical help arrives

Notes: 

Contents


85. Indirect Pressure-Pressure Points


Cause: 

Symptoms: Used when direct pressue not possible/effective to stop severe bleeding

Treatment: For arm
Trace straight down inside of upper arm & fell for pulse in artery.Apply pressure until blood flow reduced
For leg
Lay victim down with knee bent & feel for pressure point where artery crosses pelvic bone,in centre of groin crease.Apply pressure until blood flow reduced

Notes: DO NOT apply pressure for more than 10 mins
NEVER apply a tourniquet

Contents


86. Infection


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Increased pain
*Swelling,redness or tenderness
*Heat/red streaks extending from area 
*Discharge of pus
*Fever of 100'F or higher with no other cause

Treatment: 

Notes: 

Contents


87. Infectious Hepatitis


Cause: Spread through faeces/urine.Enters through cuts/sores or drinking water

Symptoms: *Yellowish skin
*Nausea
*Appetite loss
*Abdominal pain

Treatment: Rest 

Notes: 

Contents


88. Insect Stings


Cause: 

Symptoms: Most sting reactions not allergic
*Local pain
*Swelling
*Redness at site of sting.Some extension of swelling expected

Treatment: 1 Remove sting using fine tweezers-grasp sting below poison sac to avoid releasing more poison
2 Apply cold compress to relieve pain/minimize swelling
3 Contact doctor if pain/swelling persist

Notes: If stung in mouth/throat give victim ice to suck or cold water to sip and contact emergency services immediately

Contents


89. Jellyfish Stings


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Pain & hive-like swelling
*If numerous & large amount of poison released,may be;
-Shortness of breath
-Nausea
-Stomach cramps
*In severe cases;
-Muscle cramps
-Fainting
-Vomiting
-Difficulty breathing

Treatment: 1 Rinse area immediately with sea water(DO NOT use fresh water,alcohol or rub sand-this releases more poison
2 Splash vinegar,rubbing alcohol or meat tenderizer dissolved in saltwater on area to neutralize poison
3 Remove attached tentacles carefully.Protect hand with towel & apply paste of sand or baking soda & saltwater to area.Scrape tentacles off with towel or edge of credit card
4 Apply calamine lotion to relieve pain & itching
If stung by Portuguese man-of-war jellyfish,scrape stinging tentacles off with sand & seek medical help immediately

Notes: Call emergency services if signs of severe ALLERGIC REACTION develop soon after being stung by jellyfish:
*Wheezing,difficulty breathing 
*Swelling around lips,tongue or face or significant swelling around sting(e.g.entire arm or leg swollen)
*If swelling around site of jellyfish sting
*If skin around sting becomes discoloured
*If over-the-counter pain medications unable to control pain
*Call doctor to talk about adrenaline kits or allergy shots (immunotherapy) for jellyfish venom if serious allergic reaction

Contents


90. Leptospirosis


Cause: Rodents/infected water,through cuts/sores/drinking water

Symptoms: *Jaundice look
*Lethargy
*Fever

Treatment: Procane penicillin,Tetracycline

Notes: 

Contents


91. Malaria


Cause: Saliva of mosquito

Symptoms: *Recurrent fever
*Sweats but victim feels chilled & shivers
*Variants cause headaches,malaise & vomiting
*Leaves victim weak

Treatment: Many preventitive drugs

Notes: Affects 200 million people worldwide,killing 1 million people each year in Africa alone

Contents


92. Meningitis


Cause: Can develop in a few hours

Symptoms: *Fever
*Vomiting,appetite loss
*Headache
*Sensitivity to light
*Neck stiffness
*Convulsions
*Red/purple blood spots (purpuric rash)

Treatment: Call emergency services immediately
Check rash by lightly pressing side of glass against it-if it does not disappear under the pressure it is not purpuric

Notes: 

Contents


93. Miscarriage


Cause: Various

Symptoms: *Cramp-like pain in lower abdomen/pelvic area
*SHOCK
*Sudden,heavy vaginal bleeding
*Discharge of foetus

Treatment: 1 Reassure mother
2 Help her to get comfortable
3 Obtain sanitary towel/pad for mother
4 Monitor & record BREATHING & PULSE every 10 mins
5 Retrieve any expelled material for later medical investigation,keeping from mother's view

Notes: Other reasons for vaginal bleeding;
-Heavy period
-Induced abortion
-Ectopic pregnancy (egg wrongly develops in falopian tube)-life threatening condition

Contents


94. Mouth to Mouth/Artificial Ventilation


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: With victim lying flat on back;
1 Remove obstacles from mouth
2 Open AIRWAY by tilting head back
3 Pinch victim's nose closed
4 Take a full breath,place lips over victim's mouth (for babies,cover baby's mouth and nose)
5 Blow into victim's mouth until chest rises,taking about 2 secs to inflate
6 Remove your lips & allow victim's chest to deflate,about 4 secs
7 Repeat once & check circulation/PULSE
If there is a pulse/no breathing,continue & check pulse after every 10 breaths
If breathing returns,place victim in RECOVERY POSITION
If no pulse & no other recovery (skin colour,swallowing,coughing or breathing) start CPR
If chest does not rise,check AIRWAY is open

Notes: 

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95. Moving Victim


Cause: Only when medical help not available or immediate danger to life:
*Busy road where traffic cannot be stopped
*Dangerous/collapsing building
*Fumes/gas danger

Symptoms: 

Treatment: If must move:
1 Assess all injuries & support injured limbs
2 Move victim in exactly same position initially found

Notes: 

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96. Nails (Blood Under)


Cause: Finger/toenails often get crushed

Symptoms: Injuries usually aren't serious,but if bleeding under nail,pressure can be painful

Treatment: To relieve throbbing & pain make hole in nail to drain blood.You may feel squeamish about trying this at home,but it is the same thing a health professional would do
Draining helpful only if there is severe,throbbing pain(you can feel pulse beating under nail) that is bad enough to prevent sleep
* Apply ice & elevate injured area soon after injury to minimize swelling & relieve pain
* Acetaminophen will also ease discomfort
* To make hole in nail & relieve throbbing: 
- Straighten paper clip & heat tip in flame until red hot
- Place tip of paper clip on nail & let it melt through.No need to push.This will not be painful,because nail has no nerves.Thick nails may take several tries
- Relieve Pressure.When hole complete,blood will escape & pain will be relieved
- Soak finger 3 times a day in half-&-half mixture of hydrogen peroxide & warm water
- If pressure builds up again in few days,repeat procedure,using same hole

Notes: Consult medical professional if:
* victim won't let you try procedure
* signs of INFECTION appear
* Signs of more serious injury,see STRAINS,SPRAINS & FRACTURES

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97. Nosebleed


Cause: Nose injury,strenuous activity,high blood pressure,exposure to high altitude,blowing nose too hard

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Sit down with head held forward
2 Lean slightly forward to prevent blood running into throat
3 Tell victim to breathe through mouth & not speak,sniff,spit or swallow
4 If blood coming from one nostril,press firmly at top of that nostril,just below ridge
5 If both nostrils bleeding,pinch nostrils together for at least 10 mins
6 If bleeding continues,apply pressure in 10 min bursts
7 If bleeding after 30 mins take/send victim to hospital
8 If bleeding stops,tell victim to rest for several hours

Notes: If heavy bleeding persists or nosebleeds recur frequently,consult doctor

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98. Period Pain


Cause: Common,not usually serious

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Use painkillers(Ibuprofen,Aspirin,Codeine)
2 When severe,take hot bath,relax in bed with hot water bottle

Notes: 

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99. Poison-Absorption


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: Call emergency services immediately
If poison like dry or wet chemicals get on skin,flush area with large amounts of water & continue flushing area until help arrives.If you have had a run-in with poison ivy,poison oak or poison sumac,no need to call for medical help.Wash affected area with soap & water.If you develop rash,put paste of baking soda & water on area several times a day or use anti-itch lotion or antihistamine to relieve itchiness.Be aware some people have ALLERGIC REACTIONS to over-the-counter drugs to stop itching-use caution & if you have doubts,talk to doctor

Notes: See doctor if condition gets worse,affecting large areas of body or face

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100. Poison-Carbon Monoxide(CO)


Cause: Car exhaust fumes/coal burning fires

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Remove victim from source of toxic fumes to fresh air
2 Check BREATHING
3 Perform RESUSCITATION if necessary
4 Place victim in RECOVERY POSITION
5 Call emergency services

Notes: CO colourless,odourless & poisonous gas

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101. Poison-General


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 

Notes: Poison is a substance that causes injury or illness when it gets into a person's body.4 ways a person can be poisoned:
ingested (swallowed)
inhaled (breathed)
absorbed (absorbed through skin)
injected (injected body)
Ingested poisons-foods,alcohol,medication,household/garden items & certain plants
Inhaled poisons-gases,like carbon monoxide from car exhaust,carbon dioxide from sewers & chlorine from a pool,or fumes from household products-glue,paint,cleaners or drugs
Absorbed poisons enter body through skin;they may come from plants,fertilizers or pesticides
Injected poisons enter body through bites or stings of insects,spiders,ticks,marine life,snakes & other animals or medications injected with a hypodermic needle

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102. Poison-Ingested (Swallowed)


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Nausea
*Vomiting
*Diarrhoea
*Chest/abdominal pain
*Difficulty breathing
*Changes in consciousness
*Seizures
*Burns around lips/tongue/on skin

Treatment: 1 Check no poison left in mouth.If vomit in mouth roll victim on side & allow vomit to drain away
2 Place 2 fingers under chin,other hand on forehead & tilt head well back
3 Check AIRWAY & BREATHING
4 Place in RECOVERY POSIITION
5 Call emergency services .If victim swallowed poison,determine what type,how much & when.If you find container,take to telephone when you make call.Do not give anything to eat/drink unless advised.If unsure what poison was & victim vomits,save some so that hospital may analyze/determine what it is

Notes: If victim conscious and lips burned,give frequent sips of cold water/milk

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103. Poison-Injection


Cause: 

Symptoms: Sting/Bites

Treatment: If stung by insect,remove stinger by scraping away from skin with fingernail/plastic card
Wash area with soap & water,cover to keep clean & apply ice to reduce pain & swelling
If victim has trouble BREATHING,they may be experiencing ALLERGIC REACTION & going into anaphylactic shock.You must call emergency services immediately or victim's AIRWAY may constrict,preventing breathing & killing them

Notes: 

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104. Poison-Marine Life


Cause: 

Symptoms: Stings from some marine life (sting rays,sea anemones,jellyfish) cause sickness

Treatment: If stung,soak affected area in salt water & apply paste of baking soda or meat tenderizer or even ice quickly to reduce swelling
If unsure what stung,have history of allergic reactions to marine life stings,are stung on face/neck or are having difficulty breathing,call emergency services immediately

Notes: 

Contents


105. Poison-Scorpions


Cause: Few species of scorpions deadly.Live in dry regions of SW U.S.& Mexico,under rocks,logs & bark of certain trees.Mostly nocturnal
If stung by scorpion,call emergency services unless positive it is not poisonous

Symptoms: *Nausea
*Vomiting
*Difficulty breathing/swallowing
*Sweating & salivating profusely
*Severe pain in bite/sting area
*Mark indicating bite/sting & swelling

Treatment: If you suspect you have been stung by scorpion,wash wound,apply ice to area & call emergecy services immediately

Notes: Antivenins,medications that block effects of the poison,are available

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106. Poison-Smoke Inhalation


Cause: Smoke from fire

Symptoms: Irritates vocal cords,closing airway

Treatment: 1 Remove victim from source of smoke to fresh air if possible
2 Check BREATHING/AIRWAY
3 Perform ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION if necessary
4 Check for/treat BURNS
5 Call emergency services

Notes: 

Contents


107. Poison-Spiders


Cause: 2 spiders in U.S.have bites that can make you seriously ill or kill:
Black widow spider-black with reddish hourglass shape on underside of body
Brown recluse spider-light brown with dark brown,violin-shaped marking on top of body
Both like dark places & bites usually occur on arms/hands of people rummaging in dark garages/attics or wood piles

Symptoms: *Nausea
*Vomiting
*Difficulty breathing/swallowing
*Sweating & salivating profusely
*Severe pain in bite/sting area
*Mark indicating bite/sting & swelling

Treatment: If you suspect you have been bitten by black widow or brown recluse,wash wound,apply ice to area & call emergency services immediately

Notes: Antivenins,medications that block effects of poison,are available

Contents


108. Polomyelitis


Cause: Contaminated drinking water

Symptoms: Paralysis

Treatment: Hot packs on muscles,rest

Notes: 

Contents


109. Prickly Heat


Cause: Heavy sweating/rubbing clothes blocks sweat glands

Symptoms: Skin irritation

Treatment: 1 Remove clothes
2 Wash body
3 Replace dry clothes

Notes: More liquid can make worse

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110. Pulse


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: Wrist
Rest fingers lightly at front of wrist,1cm from thumb side at lower forearm end
Neck
Turn face to side,slide fingers from Adam's apple into groove alongside,press gently
Baby
Feel with two fingers on inside of upper arm

Notes: Pulse rate:
Normal adult 60-80 beats/min(72 average)
Young children 90-140 beats/min
Increases with excitement

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111. Rabies


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Irritability
*Dislike of light
*Paralysis
*Water aversion

Treatment: 1 Call emergency services immediately
2 Cleanse by washing for at least 5 mins
3 Dress wounds

Notes: Untreatable without vaccine
Often fatal

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112. Recovery Position


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Kneel to one side
2 Straighten nearest arm of victim & tuck under their body
3 Bring farthest arm across chest,holding palm of hand against victim's nearest cheek
4 Keeping palm against cheek,raise knee furthest from you,pulling gently to turn victim toward you
5 On the side to which the victim's head turned,ensure knee remains at right angles to body
6 Push head back to ensure clear AIRWAY & check BREATHING

Notes: 

Contents


113. Response


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: Use AVPU code to check level of response;
A-alertness
V-responds to voice
P-responds to pain
U-Unresponsive

Notes: 

Contents


114. RICE Treatment


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 REST-Avoid using affected part to avoid further discomfort or injury.Gradually rebuild exercise program once injury has healed
2 ICE-Apply ice (bags with crushed ice,cold packs) to injured area for first 24-48 hours to prevent/reduce swelling
3 COMPRESSION-Wrap elastic bandage around injured area to secure ice in place.Do not wrap so tightly that circulation cut.After 10-15 mins,loosen bandage & remove ice.Ice may be reapplied 15-20 mins every 1 or 2 hours for first 6 hours after injury.As long as injury swelling,continue to apply ice 3-4 times a day
4 ELEVATION-Elevate injured area above heart to slow bloodflow to injury

Notes: 

Contents


115. Ringworm (Tinea cruris)


Cause: Like athletes foot,caused by fungal infection which thrives in warm,moist areas of body

Symptoms: 

Treatment: Dust area with powdered arrowroot/cornmeal,or solution of 1 part tea tree oil to 2 parts almond oil,twice daily

Notes: 

Contents


116. Severed Limb


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Control blood loss by direct pressure & raising injured limb,or by INDIRECT PRESSURE
2 Apply dressing to wound & bandage
3 Treat for SHOCK
4 Call emergency services-state amputation & whether injured limb is recovered
5 Wrap recovered limb in kitchen film/plastic bag.Cover in fabric/cloth & place in container of crushed ice.
DO NOT use cotton wool
DO NOT wash severed limb
DO NOT allow limb in direct contact with ice
6 Mark container with time & victim name

Notes: DO NOT apply a tourniquet

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117. Shock


Cause: Sudden illness or injury.When circulatory system unable to get enough blood to vital organs,body goes into shock.Mild injury can lead to shock

Symptoms: Initially
*Blue-grey skin & lips
*Rapid pulse
*Sweating,cold,clammy skin
Later
*Weakness/giddiness
*Weak pulse
*Thirst,nausea or vomiting
*Rapid,shallow breathing
Eventually
*Restlessness
*Gasping for air
*Unconsciousness
*Cardiac arrest
Shock life-threatening.Prompt treatment can save lives

Treatment: 1 Lay victim down on blanket & elevate legs 12 inches or more.If injury to head,neck or chest,keep legs flat.If victim vomits,roll to one side & fluids drain from mouth.Use care if there may be SPINAL injury
2 Control bleeding & splint fractures
3 Loosen clothing
4 Call emergency services
5 Keep victim warm,but not hot.If victim in hot place,keep them cool
6 Take & record BREATHING,PULSE & RESPONSE every 10 mins
7 Comfort & reassure victim to relieve anxiety-be prepared to RESUSCITATE

Notes: DO NOT leave victim alone
DO NOT allow them to eat,move,drink or smoke

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118. Skull Fracture


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Wound/bruise on head
*Soft/depressed area on head
*Decreasing consciousness/unconsciousness
*Clear fluid/watery blood leaking from nose/ear
*Blood in white of eye
*Asymmetrical head/face shape

Treatment: 1 If unconscious,open AIRWAY,check BREATHING & PULSE & prepare to RESUSCITATE.Place in RECOVERY POSITION
2 Lie conscious victim down,with head & shoulders raised
3 If discharge from ear,ensure ear is lower & cover with dressing
4 Control scalp bleeding & other injuries
5 Call emergency services
6 Monitor & record breathing & pulse every 10 mins

Notes: 

Contents


119. Slipped Disc


Cause: Usually lower back,inner pulp of disc squeezed out/pressing on spinal cord nerves

Symptoms: *Low back/neck pain
*May be in buttock or back of leg
*Lower back muscle spasms
*Numbness in leg/foot

Treatment: Lie victim on firm surface (mattress on floor) with shoulders/hips/ankles level
Take painkillers (Aspirin/Ibuprofen)

Notes: If symptoms persist call doctor

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120. Snake Bites


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Pain/swelling/redness
*1/2 puncture wounds
*Vision may deteriorate
*Nausea/vomitting
*Breathing problems
*Increased salivation & sweating

Treatment: 1 Victim to lie down/rest,slow heart down,reduce poison absorption
2 Clean wound
3 Lightly compress limb above wound with bandage
4 Get to hospital asap
5 Monitor BREATHING & prepare to RESUSCITATE
Catch snake if possible-note poison is still active even in dead snake

Notes: DO NOT
-Let victim move
-Elevate limb
-Cut wound/suck out poison
-Apply tourniquet

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121. Snow Blindness


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Eyes sensitive to glare
*Blinking/squinting
*Gritty feel
*Vision has red/pink hue

Treatment: 1 Get into dark
2 Blindfold eyes
3 Apply cool cloth to forehead

Notes: Self correcting

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122. Sprains


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Joint begins to swell immediately
*May turn black/blue due to escaped blood from torn blood vessels
*Victim may experience excruciating, shooting pains due to many nerves injured

Treatment: 1 RICE treatment
2 Thermotherapy(applying moist heat)promotes healing but should not be applied to muscle or ligament injury for at least 24 hours as heat will increase swelling.After swelling gone,alternate cold compresses & moist heat to injury
3 To treat injury with warm,wet packs,place water-dampened towel in microwave oven for about 30 secs.Check to make sure towel not too hot before placing on skin.If microwave oven not available,run towel under very hot tap water,wring out & apply to injury
4 A sprained arm should be placed in sling

Notes: Sprains take about 6-8 weeks to heal

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123. Strains


Cause: Injury to muscle or tendon

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 At time of injury,begin RICE treatment
2 For lower back strain,rest may bring relief.If not,alternate cold compresses with moist heat,allowing rest between treatments

Notes: 

Contents


124. Strangulation


Cause: Unconsciouness/death may result

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Call emergency services immediately
2 Relieve constriction by supporting victim
3 Remove/cut ligature
4 Check BREATHING
5 Perform RESUSCITATION & place in RECOVERY POSITION as necessary

Notes: 

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125. Stroke


Cause: Interuption of blood supply to brain due to blood clot or ruptured artery

Symptoms: *Sudden,severe headache
*Confusion
*Sudden/gradual loss of consciousness
*Weakness/paralysis,often on one side of body;
-drooping,dribbling mouth
-slurred speech
-loss of limb power/movement 
-unequal pupil size
-loss of lowel/bladder control

Treatment: Unconscious victim;
1 Open AIRWAY,check BREATHING & PULSE, prepare to RESUSCITATE. Place in RECOVERY POSITION
2 Monitor & record breathing,pulse & RESPONSE every 10 mins
3 Loosen clothing
Call emergency services
Conscious victim;
Lay victim down with head/shoulders slightly raised & supported.Incline head to one side and place cloth to absorb dribbling
Call emergency services

Notes: DO NOT give victim anything to eat/drink

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126. Teeth-Knocked Out


Cause: 

Symptoms: Upper front permanent teeth are most common teeth to be completely knocked out

Treatment: Knocked out permanent/adult teeth should be retrieved & placed back into their sockets(reimplanted) quickly & kept in place using a pad held between top & bottom teeth.Most important variable affecting reimplantation is amount of time tooth is out of socket.Teeth reimplanted within 1 hour of accident frequently reattach to sockets
DO NOT replace knocked out baby/milk/primary teeth
If cannot replace tooth, keep moist in clean water/milk & bring to dentist quickly

Notes: Over-the-counter medications like Acetaminophen (TYLENOL) or Ibuprofen (ADVIL) are normally sufficient for pain relief.Chlorhexidine (PERIDEX) mouth rinse may be prescribed to prevent & control gum inflammation(gingivitis).Oral antibiotics & tetanus toxoid injections considered for patients with accompanying significant soft tissue cuts (lacerations)

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127. Ticks/Lyme Disease


Cause: 

Symptoms: 

Treatment: 1 Remove tick quickly without squeezing body as this can cause it to inject harmful bacteria.Grasp tick with tweezers close to mouthparts & gently/firmly pull until it releases hold.Place tick in container for later analysis
2 Disinfect bite with alcohol/antiseptic
3 Contact doctor
Check bite occasionally for 2 weeks for Lyme disease:
*red rash around bite (bull's eye shape,diameter increases daily)
*fever
*chills
*severe headaches
*dizziness
*nausea
*sore throat
*fatigue
*muscle/joint aches

Notes: May experience one or all these symptoms,so Lyme disease can be mistaken for other illnesses.Consult doctor if in doubt.Can be treated with antibiotics in early stages.If not diagnosed soon after acquisition,permanent arthritis may result

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128. Toothache


Cause: Usually decayed tooth

Symptoms: *Throbbing indicates INFECTION

Treatment: 1 Take painkillers
2 Lie victim down/propped up with pillows if more comfortable
3 Hold hot water bottle wrapped in cloth next to face,or soak cotton wool in oil of cloves & hold against tooth
4 See dentist

Notes: Sinusitis & ear infection often mistaken for toothache

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129. Travel Sickness


Cause: Caused by cotinuous,repetitive body movement during travel

Symptoms: *Yawning
*Deep/rapid breathing
*Salivaton
*Nausea
*Pallor
*Abdomnal discomfort
*Sweating
*Vomitting
*Headache
*Dizziness
*Fatigue

Treatment: 1 Get into fresh air
2 Sit with head tited backwards
3 Fix eyes on unmoving point i.e.the horizon if on a boat

Notes: 

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130. Trench Foot


Cause: Prolonged wet/damp conditions

Symptoms: *Feet white & cold
*Pins & needles
*Alternate numbness/sharp pain
*Red/swell/blister on rewarming

Treatment: 1 Dry feet,leave blisters intact
2 Elevate feet & apply gentle warmth
DO NOT massage feet

Notes: Prevent with exercise/keep dry

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131. Typhoid (Enteric Fever)


Cause: Salmonella bacteria

Symptoms: *Sudden high temp
*Headache
*Abdominal pain
*Fever
*Appetite loss
*Limb pain
*Delirium

Treatment: Antibiotics

Notes: 

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132. Typhus (Group of diseases)


Cause: Spread by insects-fleas,mites & ticks

Symptoms: *Headache
*Constipation
*Collapse
*Back pain
*Coughing
*Fever,delerium & red rash follow
May be weak PULSE

Treatment: Antbiotics,vaccine available

Notes: 

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133. Unconsciousness


Cause: *stroke
*epilepsy
*heat stroke
*diabetic coma
*insulin shock
*head/spinal injury
*suffocation
*alcohol or drug overdose
*shock
*bleeding
*heart attack 

Symptoms: Unconscious person completely unaware & unable to make purposeful movements.Fainting brief form of unconsciousness;coma is deep,prolonged state of unconsciousness 
Fainting usually short loss of consciousness often due to momentary drop in blood flow to brain.Fall/lie down,blood flow is improved & regain consciousness.This lightheadedness is mild form of shock & usually not serious.If happens often,may be more serious problem 
Dizziness & fainting also brought on by sudden emotional stress or injury

Treatment: 1 Open AIRWAY-lift chin & tilt head
2 Check BREATHING & PULSE & prepare to RESUSCITATE
3 Assess & record level of RESPONSE
4 If victim vomits,place in RECOVERY POSITION
5 IF suspected,treat for SPINAL INJURY
6 Examine victim for major bleeding/FRACTURES & treat
7 Look for medical card/tag/bracelet needle marks & smell breath
8 Place in RECOVERY POSITION
9 If unconscious after 3 mins call emergency services
10 Monitor & record breathing,pulse & response every 10 mins
If victim awake after 3 mins & recovers after 10 mins,suggest medical advice

Notes: DO NOT move victim unless in danger
DO NOT make victim sit or stand up
DO NOT leave victim unattended
DO NOT give anything to eat or drink

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134. Yellow Fever


Cause: 

Symptoms: *Headache
*Nosebleed
*Nausea
*Fever
*Slow pulse
*Pain in neck,arms & back in severe cases
Liver damage can lead to jaundice/kidney failure

Treatment: Rest-no effective medication

Notes: Take vaccine before travelling to Africa,S.America